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Followers of Zwingli pushed his message and reforms far further than even he had intended, such as rejecting infant baptism. John Calvin was a French cleric and doctor of law. He belonged to the second generation of the Reformation, publishing his theological tome, the Institutes of the Christian Religion , in later revised and establishing himself as a leader of the Reformed church in Geneva , which became an "unofficial capital" of Reformed Christianity in the second half of the 16th century.

He exerted a remarkable amount of authority in the city and over the city council, such that he has rather ignominiously been called a "Protestant pope. Predestination was not the dominant idea in Calvin's works, but it would seemingly become so for many of his Reformed successors. Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the pope, the work and writings of Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland , Hungary, Germany and elsewhere.

Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, led by the Frenchman, Jean Calvin , until his death when Calvin's ally, Zwingli, assumed the spiritual leadership of the group.

Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Its acceptance stretches through much of mainstream Protestantism. Because of the influence of John Wesley , Arminianism is perhaps most prominent in the Methodist movement. Arminianism is most accurately used to define those who affirm the original beliefs of Jacobus Arminius, but the term can also be understood as an umbrella for a larger grouping of ideas including those of Hugo Grotius , John Wesley , Clark Pinnock , and others.

There are two primary perspectives on how the system is applied in detail: Classical Arminianism, which sees Arminius as its figurehead, and Wesleyan Arminianism, which as the name suggests sees John Wesley as its figurehead. Wesleyan Arminianism is sometimes synonymous with Methodism. Within the broad scope of church history , Arminianism is closely related to Calvinism, and the two systems share both history and many doctrines. Nonetheless, they are often viewed as archrivals within Evangelicalism because of their disagreement over the doctrines of predestination and salvation.

Anglican doctrine emerged from the interweaving of two main strands of Christian doctrine during the English Reformation in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first strand is the Catholic doctrine taught by the established church in England in the early 16th century. The second strand is a range of Protestant Reformed teachings brought to England from neighbouring countries in the same period, notably Calvinism and Lutheranism.

The Church of England was the national branch of the Catholic Church. The formal doctrines had been documented in canon law over the centuries, and the Church of England still follows an unbroken tradition of canon law. The English Reformation did not dispense with all previous doctrines. The church not only retained the core Catholic beliefs common to Reformed doctrine in general, such as the Trinity , the Virgin Birth of Jesus, the nature of Jesus as fully human and fully God, the Resurrection of Jesus , Original Sin , and Excommunication as affirmed by the Thirty-Nine Articles , but also retained some Catholic teachings which were rejected by true Protestants, such as the three orders of ministry and the apostolic succession of bishops.

Unlike other reform movements, the English Reformation began by royal influence. However, the king came into conflict with the papacy when he wished to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon , for which he needed papal sanction. Catherine, among many other noble relations, was the aunt of Emperor Charles V , the papacy's most significant secular supporter. The ensuing dispute eventually led to a break from Rome.

Between and , under Thomas Cromwell , the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. There were some notable opponents to the Henrician Reformation , such as Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher , who were executed for their opposition.

There was also a growing party of reformers who were imbued with the Zwinglian and Calvinistic doctrines. When Henry died he was succeeded by his Protestant son Edward VI , who, through his empowered councillors with the king being only nine years old at his succession and not yet sixteen at his death the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Northumberland, ordered the destruction of images in churches, and the closing of the chantries.

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Under Edward VI the reform of the Church of England was established unequivocally in doctrinal terms. Yet, at a popular level, religion in England was still in a state of flux. Following a brief Roman Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary —, a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I , though this point is one of considerable debate among historians.

Yet it is the so-called " Elizabethan Religious Settlement " to which the origins of Anglicanism are traditionally ascribed. The political separation of the Church of England from Rome, beginning in and completed in , brought England alongside this broad Reformed movement. However, religious changes in the English national church proceeded more conservatively than elsewhere in Europe. Reformers in the Church of England alternated for centuries between sympathies for Catholic traditions and Protestantism, progressively forging a stable compromise between adherence to ancient tradition and Protestantism, which is now sometimes called the via media.

During the Reformation the teachings of Martin Luther led to the end of the monasteries, but a few Protestants followed monastic lives.

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Loccum Abbey and Amelungsborn Abbey have the longest traditions as Lutheran monasteries. Since the 19th century there have been a renewal in the monastic life among Protestants. The property and lands of the monasteries were confiscated and either retained by the king or given to loyal protestant nobility. Monks and nuns were forced to either flee for the continent or to abandon their vocations. For around years, there were no monastic communities within any of the Anglican churches. All of Scandinavia ultimately adopted Lutheranism over the course of the 16th century, as the monarchs of Denmark who also ruled Norway and Iceland and Sweden who also ruled Finland converted to that faith.

In Sweden the Reformation was spearheaded by Gustav Vasa , elected king in Friction with the pope over interference in Swedish ecclesiastical affairs led to the discontinuance of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy from The king was given possession of all church property, church appointments required royal approval, the clergy were subject to the civil law, and the "pure Word of God" was to be preached in the churches and taught in the schools—effectively granting official sanction to Lutheran ideas.

Under the reign of Frederick I —33 , Denmark remained officially Catholic. But though Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, of whom the most famous was Hans Tausen. Frederick's son, Christian, was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in he became Christian III and began a reformation of the official state church. The Scottish Reformation culminated ecclesiastically in the re-establishment of the church along Reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France.

John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation. The Reformation Parliament of , which repudiated the pope's authority, forbade the celebration of the mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith. This was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise , who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter Mary, Queen of Scots then also Queen of France. The Scottish Reformation decisively shaped the Church of Scotland [23] and, through it, all other Presbyterian churches worldwide.

A spiritual revival also broke out among Catholics soon after Martin Luther's actions, and led to the Scottish Covenanters' movement , the precursor to Scottish Presbyterianism. This movement spread, and greatly influenced the formation of Puritanism among the Anglican Church in England.

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This persecution by the Catholics drove some of the Protestant Covenanter leadership out of Scotland and into France and Switzerland. Protestantism also spread from the German lands into France, where the Protestants were known as Huguenots. Though not personally interested in religious reform, Francis I reigned — initially maintained an attitude of tolerance, in accordance with his interest in the humanist movement.

This changed in with the Affair of the Placards. In this act, Protestants denounced the Catholic Mass in placards that appeared across France, even reaching the royal apartments. During this time as the issue of religious faith entered into the arena of politics, Francis came to view the movement as a threat to the kingdom's stability.

Following the Affair of the Placards, culprits were rounded up, at least a dozen heretics were put to death, and the persecution of Protestants increased. Beyond the reach of the French kings in Geneva, Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his native land including the training of ministers for congregations in France. As the number of Protestants in France increased, the number of heretics in prisons awaiting trial also grew.

As an experimental approach to reduce the caseload in Normandy, a special court just for the trial of heretics was established in in the Parlement de Rouen. Despite heavy persecution by Henry II , the Reformed Church of France , largely Calvinist in direction, made steady progress across large sections of the nation, in the urban bourgeoisie and parts of the aristocracy , appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution, came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the noble conversions of the s.

This had the effect of creating the preconditions for a series of destructive and intermittent conflicts, known as the Wars of Religion. The civil wars were helped along by the sudden death of Henry II in , which saw the beginning of a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown. Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristic of the time, illustrated at its most intense in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August , when the Catholic Church annihilated between 30, and , Huguenots across France. Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau —which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Catholicism the sole legal religion of France.

In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William of Brandenburg declared the Edict of Potsdam , giving free passage to French Huguenot refugees and tax-free status to them for 10 years. The Reformation in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries, was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces but instead by multiple popular movements, which in turn were bolstered by the arrival of Protestant refugees from other parts of the continent. While the Anabaptist movement enjoyed popularity in the region in the early decades of the Reformation, Calvinism, in the form of the Dutch Reformed Church , became the dominant Protestant faith in the country from the s onward.

Harsh persecution of Protestants by the Spanish government of Philip II contributed to a desire for independence in the provinces, which led to the Eighty Years' War and eventually, the separation of the largely Protestant Dutch Republic from the Catholic-dominated Southern Netherlands , the present-day Belgium. Much of the population of Kingdom of Hungary adopted Protestantism during the 16th century. The spread of Protestantism in the country was aided by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of Martin Luther.

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While Lutheranism gained a foothold among the German-speaking population, Calvinism became widely accepted among ethnic Hungarians. In the more independent northwest the rulers and priests, protected by the Habsburg Monarchy which had taken the field to fight the Turks, defended the old Catholic faith.

They dragged the Protestants to prison and the stake wherever they could. Protestants likely formed a majority of Hungary's population at the close of the 16th century, but Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted a majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The essence of the Counter-Reformation was a renewed conviction in traditional practices and the upholding of Catholic doctrine as the source of ecclesiastic and moral reform, and the answer to halting the spread of Protestantism. Thus it experienced the founding of new religious orders, such as the Jesuits , the establishment of seminaries for the proper training of priests, renewed worldwide missionary activity, and the development of new yet orthodox forms of spirituality, such as that of the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality.

The entire process was spearheaded by the Council of Trent , which clarified and reasserted doctrine, issued dogmatic definitions, and produced the Roman Catechism. The counter-reformation and developed a Second scholasticism , which was pitted against Lutheran scholasticism. The overall result of the Reformation was therefore to highlight distinctions of belief that had previously co-existed uneasily. Although Ireland, Spain, and France featured significantly in the Counter-Reformation, its heart was Italy and the various popes of the time, who established the Index Librorum Prohibitorum , the list of prohibited books or simply the "Index," and the Roman Inquisition , a system of juridical tribunals that prosecuted heresy and related offences.

The Papacy of St. Pius V — was known for its focus on halting heresy and worldly abuses within the Church and for its focus on improving popular piety in a determined effort to stem the appeal of Protestantism. Pius began his pontificate by giving large alms to the poor, charity, and hospitals, and the pontiff was known for consoling the poor and sick and supporting missionaries.

The activities of these pontiffs coincided with a rediscovery of the ancient Christian catacombs in Rome. As Diarmaid MacCulloch states, "Just as these ancient martyrs were revealed once more, Catholics were beginning to be martyred afresh, both in mission fields overseas and in the struggle to win back Protestant northern Europe: the catacombs proved to be an inspiration for many to action and to heroism.

The Council of Trent — , initiated by Pope Paul III , addressed issues of certain ecclesiastical corruptions such as simony , nepotism , and other abuses, as well as the reassertion of traditional practices and the dogmatic articulation of the traditional doctrines of the Church, such as the episcopal structure, clerical celibacy, the seven Sacraments , transubstantiation the belief that during mass the consecrated bread and wine truly become the body and blood of Christ , the veneration of relics, icons, and saints especially the Blessed Virgin Mary , the necessity of both faith and good works for salvation, the existence of purgatory and the issuance but not the sale of indulgences, etc.

In other words, all Protestant doctrinal objections and changes were uncompromisingly rejected. The council also fostered an interest in education for parish priests to increase pastoral care. Milan 's Archbishop Carlo Borromeo set an example by visiting the remotest parishes and instilling high standards. A protracted debate followed the council on whether the teaching of the Church Fathers more closely matched Trent or the Evangelicals. The monasteries also provided refuge to those sick of earthly life like Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who retired to Yuste in his late years, and his son Philip II of Spain , who was functionally as close to a monastic as his regal responsibilities permitted.

The issue resulted in a crisis of conscience in 16th-century Spain. In , through the leadership and preaching of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan , the first Catholics were baptized in what became the first Christian nation in Southeast Asia, the Philippines. They taught the Indians better farming methods and easier ways of weaving and making pottery. Because some people questioned whether the Indians were truly human and deserved baptism, Pope Paul III in the papal bull Veritas Ipsa or Sublimis Deus confirmed that the Indians were deserving people.

In Europe, the Renaissance marked a period of renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. It also brought a re-examination of accepted beliefs. Cathedrals and churches had long served as picture books and art galleries for millions of the uneducated.

The stained glass windows, frescoes , statues, paintings and panels retold the stories of the saints and of biblical characters. The Church sponsored great Renaissance artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci , who created some of the world's most famous artworks. In , a well known scholar of the age, Erasmus , wrote The Praise of Folly , a work which captured a widely held unease about corruption in the Church.

The Papacy was questioned by councilarism expressed in the councils of Constance and the Basel. Real reforms during these ecumenical councils and the Fifth Lateran Council were attempted several times but thwarted. They were seen as necessary but did not succeed in large measure because of internal feuds within the Church, [45] ongoing conflicts with the Ottoman Empire and Saracenes [45] and the simony and nepotism practiced in the Renaissance Church of the 15th and early 16th centuries.

During the Reformation, the Church had defended its Marian beliefs against Protestant views. At the same time, the Catholic world was engaged in ongoing Ottoman Wars in Europe against Turkey which were fought and won under the auspices of the Virgin Mary. The victory at Battle of Lepanto was accredited to her "and signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions, focusing especially on Mary, the Queen of Heaven and Earth and her powerful role as mediatrix of many graces".

The Eastern Catholic churches consider themselves to have reconciled the East-West Schism by keeping their prayers and rituals similar to those of Eastern Orthodoxy, while also accepting the primacy of the Bishop of Rome.

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Some Eastern Orthodox charge that joining in this unity comes at the expense of ignoring critical doctrinal differences and past atrocities. From the perspective of many Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholicism is a ploy by Roman Catholicism to undermine and ultimately destroy their church by undermining its legitimacy and absorbing it into the Roman Catholic Church. It is feared that this ploy would diminish the power to the original eastern Patriarchs of the church and would require the acceptance of rejected doctrines and Scholasticism over faith.

Realizing the necessity of strengthening the ecclesiastic authority in Russia , Boris Godunov managed to persuade the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Jeremias II to establish a patriarchate in Russia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For broader coverage of this topic, see Christianity in the modern era. Further information: Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation. The upcoming course, Experiencing God: The History of Catholic Spirituality , will help you to learn about the various different traditions that fall under the Tradition and orthodoxy of the Catholic Church.

And since there were heterodox tendencies and movements almost from the beginning, one can likewise learn from history the mistakes and errors of the past and thus perhaps avoid repeating them in the present.


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