This article compares responses to incriminating expert evidence that is, forensic science in Australia, Switzerland, and the United States. It begins with an outline of the three systems. Then, drawing on recent reviews of the forensic sciences, it explains that many of the forensic sciences have not been formally evaluated—that is, never subjected to validation studies.
This means that in many cases we do not know if techniques work, nor how well. It also means that standards, claims about proficiency and experience, as well as the expressions used by analysts are not empirically based. These critical findings from a range of peak scientific organizations and commissions of inquiry for example, the U. National Academy of Sciences and National Institute of Standards and Technology are then used to illuminate the impact of rules, procedures, and the performance of personnel such as forensic scientists, prosecutors, defense lawyers and judges across our three jurisdictions.
The article explains how three different criminal justice systems each failed to identify or credibly respond to deep structural and endemic problems with many types of forensic science and medicine evidence routinely used by investigators and prosecutors. Serious problems with forensic science techniques and derivative evidence are rarely identified, let alone explained and conveyed in ordinary criminal proceedings.
Indeed, there is very limited evidence that lawyers and judges are conversant with emerging critiques or the corrosive impact of speculative expert evidence on criminal proof. The article endeavors to understand these failures and the weakness of processes and safeguards across advanced criminal justice systems that include adversarial and nonadversarial elements. It also considers why many of the problems were initially identified in the United States, although not necessarily in courts, and what might be done in each of these jurisdictions to improve awareness and enhance legal responses to weak and speculative forms of incriminating expert evidence.
The Internet has spawned a dark side by creating new ways to commit crime. Cybercrimes increase exponentially, and current laws do not provide adequate redress. Emerging areas that have, and will, trouble the courts are cyberstalking, cyberharassment, and online impersonation. Although these crimes contain elements found in current stalking and harassing laws, they are unique offenses with distinguishing qualities.
Beyond traditional stalking, cyberstalkers can use a wider range of methods, from tracking victims through social media to impersonating targeted individuals. To adequately address these crimes, lawmakers need to draft new laws specific to these offenses. Because prosecutions of cyberstalking and cyberharassment are stymied by the current statutory requirements of culpable mental state, I propose statutes and rules that individually address cyberstalking, cyberharassment, and online impersonation to improve protections for victims and accountability for offenders.
When various theories of this nature are at odds, the scientific process, in all its careful, calculated glory, provides for eventual—but never quite final—resolution. What happens, then, when rapid and final resolution is sought? When the scientific debate becomes a legal dispute, does the legal process complement the scientific, or interfere with it? When such disputes arise, who is the better judge: one in a black robe, one in a white coat, or somewhere in between a grey cardigan?
Similar issues frequently arise in the context of the Federal Rules of Evidence, where courts are asked to determine the admissibility of forensic science evidence. In this comment, the focus is placed on cases where advanced scientific theories themselves are the subject of litigation, and modifications are proposed that would better enable courts to address such cases. Part I examines Sancho v. Department of Energy, a case in which two private plaintiffs sought to halt construction of the LHC, to illustrate the difficulties courts face in effectively adjudicating scientific disputes.
Part II proposes three possible modifications for courts to consider to improve the adjudicative process in cases involving scientific claims. First, an examination of a new preliminary injunction standard is given that could be applied in cases involving low probability but potentially catastrophic risks. This option is ultimately rejected as misguided and ineffective. Although a JSRS could significantly improve science-based adjudication, it would also present structural, constitutional, and political questions. To avoid these problems and to effectuate the most comprehensive improvements, an argument is made for the creation of a new science court.
While the idea of a science court has garnered considerable interest and generated serious debate in the past, the discussion has, unfortunately, lain surprisingly dormant in recent decades. The prim and proper Victorians were aghast at the perceived rise of violent crimes, while simultaneously being enthralled with the latest terrible murder accounts and stories of detection.
Flanders has written a fascinating and sprawling, gruesome and engrossing, lucid and lively social history of the subject of murder in 19th-century England. The Eighth Amendment to the U. But how do lower court judges and ordinary citizens view these punishments and their relationship to justice? We surveyed trial and appellate judges and jury-eligible members of the general public about these matters. We found that the standards of decency for our surveyed groups have not evolved to the place reached by the Supreme Court.
In three Eighth Amendment scenarios, a large majority of the public favored punishments that were expressly rejected as cruel and unusual by the Supreme Court. The attitudes of lower court judges were in between those of the general public and Supreme Court, but closer to those of the Supreme Court.
We discuss some reasons why the public may be more punitive than the judges and Justices, and whether courts should attend to public opinion on this matter. Nuisance-value patent suits impose significant costs on a wide range of industries. Yet effective solutions in the political arena remain elusive. The situation calls for a practical approach that can be quickly implemented, is useful throughout various stages of litigation, and adaptable to meet the different needs of various industries.
Sanctions under Rule 11 can be such a tool in curbing frivolous infringement suits. Rule 11 is particularly useful in the patent litigation context because it applies throughout the stages of litigation, including the initial stages, and its provisions help prevent the overdeterrence of claims with merit.
A technology-specific application of the prefiling investigation requirement under Rule 11 can be an effective weapon in deterring plaintiffs from bringing meritless claims. Existing factors of the Rule should be considered within the context of the specific technology at issue.
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In its Green Technology Pilot Program, implemented in late , the USPTO underscored its preference for certain technologies with greater relative potential to benefit society by offering examination-based incentives to inventors of environmental technologies. Nonetheless, the Green Technology Pilot Program leaves an obvious gap in incentive support for biomedical innovations, another field with a high potential for societal benefit.
Therefore, because of inherent differences between the green technology and biotechnology industries, the USPTO must devise a unique and sustainable solution to encourage biomedical inventions for humanitarian purposes. It is an amazing tale. The book holds its own in that ever growing field of volumes on technology and the future; its chief virtue is its attention to most areas of scientific progress that will intimately affect mankind.
The rise of biotechnology, in concert with the Bayh-Dole Act, greatly intensified the practice of university technology transfer in which academic institutions take ownership of federally funded discoveries and license them as private assets. Scholars of technology transfer have tended to describe the process of institutionalization as a smooth one, overlooking the important ways that it has been uneven and contested. Particular licensing controversies in the s and s demonstrate how certain prevailing assumptions of the entrepreneurial university have been challenged, and how the boundaries of the public and private domain are under active negotiation.
In particular, controversies surrounding biotechnological objects like transgenic mice, stem cells, and pharmaceutical targets evince fundamental disagreements about the obligations of the research university in its new role as an investor of knowledge capital. These controversies have also helped produce new answers to larger questions facing the university as it seeks to negotiate its private and public interests.
Faced with increasing political scrutiny from diverse stakeholders, university technology transfer professionals have been forced to develop new practices of public accountability. This trend should be welcomed, as it has the potential to enable both a deeper democratic engagement and a richer distributive politics within the American innovation system.
This issue of Jurimetrics includes the core of an amicus brief filed with the United States Supreme Court in the case of Maryland v. The brief was filed on December 28, , the matter was argued on February 26, , and the Supreme Court issued its decision on June 3, The amici, eight scientists and two law professors, filed this brief in support of neither party.
The extent to which those markers provide information beyond identification is often viewed as important in interpreting the intrusiveness of forensic DNA testing. The conclusion that emerges from the brief is that the salient information content is not nothing, but not very much. That is, of course, the answer as of December Although we know of no changes in the scientific understanding of the CODIS markers, such changes may always take place. The markers currently used for forensic identification—both the type of marker and the exact DNA locations involved—can also change.
But we believe this brief represents the best understanding of the informational significance of the CODIS markers as of December Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics highlights the complexity of gene-related patents and the ethical questions they provoke. A new technology, poised to become commonplace in the medical field in the next few years, promises to offer a novel resolution to the problem. Furthermore, drawing on the conclusion of the Association for Molecular Pathology case and other legal arguments, WGS is highly unlikely to infringe any surviving gene patents, operating in a distinct manner that does not infringe the complementary DNA patents upheld by the Supreme Court.
This technology will provide a robust solution to the arguments that gene patents drive up the cost of genetics testing and restrict patient access to care—even if it does not offer a satisfying philosophical denouement—by offering inexpensive and comprehensive genetic treatment without infringing the gene patents owned by companies like Myriad Genetics.
Health-care costs are a significant current concern and overtreatment burdens both individuals and the national health-care system. One potential contributor to the current era of overtreatment is the development and rapid expansion of genetic testing. The issue of when and how to disclose the results of genetic tests was identified more than a decade ago, and it has yet to be definitively addressed by court systems or regulatory agencies.
Because the clear, simplistic approaches proposed thus far are too strict, but accounting for the interests of all parties involved is daunting. Genetic information is as important to patients as any other health information, but is unique in that the reliability, versatility, and utility of a given piece of genetic information today may not be the same tomorrow. Legal rules must adapt as genetic technology improves, treatments progress, and care strategies change, but also be clear and straightforward in a particular case at any moment in time.
Economics provides the ideal solution: a formula that balances the costs and benefits to all parties to establish a floor for when disclosure of genetic information to patients is mandatory, and gives parties a basis for evaluating if and when to disclose more at their own discretion. Variable factors for each gene, each associated condition, and the current status of treatment for any case can be inserted in such a formula to reach an appropriate result.
The result may then give rise to a duty to disclose when it is beneficial and relieve parties of that duty when it is not, avoiding the inefficient delays and administrative costs of constantly updating legal rules. An economic formula should be adopted to limit mandatory disclosure of information to circumstances where the benefits outweigh the total costs to the patient and the burden on the health-care system.
Almost without exception, courts have upheld the constitutionality of collecting DNA from convicted offenders and placing their identifying DNA profiles into computer-searchable databases that are trawled for matches to DNA recovered from crime scenes or from victims. Although adding profiles to databases before a conviction is far more controversial, just this June, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a Maryland law mandating DNA collection on arrest and analysis after arraignment.
Twenty states and the federal government have adopted statutes that authorize the post-incarceration commitment of sexually violent predators. Actuarial risk assessment is commonly used, and in some states statutorily required, to assess the risk of sexual recidivism in these proceedings. Professionals sometimes modify actuarial risk estimates with their own clinical judgment, the so-called adjusted actuarial approach. Although this approach is controversial and courts almost uniformly permit it, the effect of this practice on fact finders is unknown.
Adjusting the risk estimate downwards did not decrease the commitment rate. Notably, this effect occurred without the expert providing any rationale for the adjustment. Further analyses suggest that participants engaged in motivated reasoning, which refers to the tendency to selectively credit or discredit information depending on whether it is congenial to the desired outcome. Participants who chose to commit the respondent deemed the assessment highly acceptable when it indicated high risk, and relatively unacceptable when it indicated low risk, even though the substance of the assessments was identical.
Implications for the adjusted actuarial approach are discussed in conjunction with existing legal admissibility standards for expert testimony. Place, the Supreme Court held that dog sniffs of vehicles, stopped for lawful purposes, are not a search. Lower courts have held that a positive alert by a trained narcotics dog can establish probable cause for a search of the car. Many courts use the fraction of positive identifications in which drugs were found to assess the reliability of the dog, and thus to decide whether the alert established probable cause.
In the medical test literature, this summary statistic is called the predictive value of a positive test PVP. By itself, it does not measure the accuracy of the sniffs or medical test. There are two components to assessing the accuracy of a dog sniff or test. These are the probability that the dog sniff correctly classifies an item containing contraband as having it and the probability the sniff correctly exonerates an item not containing contraband.
The PVP depends on both these probabilities and on the prevalence of contraband in the places the dog has examined. The same PVP can arise when 1 an accurate dog sniffs items with a low prevalence of contraband and 2 a much less accurate dog examines items with a high prevalence of drugs. It is mathematically impossible to estimate the two accuracy rates of a narcotics dog from the field performance data typically submitted by the state to show the narcotics dog is reliable.
The problem arises because one needs three equations to estimate the prevalence and the two accuracy rates but the data only provide two. These issues will be illustrated on data from cases. Rather than continuing to rely on an inappropriate measure of the accuracy of dog sniffs, courts should require more information concerning the accuracy of dogs in their training sessions, certifications, and in the field. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act CFAA makes it a federal crime for a person to intentionally access a computer without authorization or to exceed authorized access and thereby obtain information from any protected computer.
While the Act broadly defines what constitutes exceeding authorized access, it does not define authorization. Alternatively, the judiciary should not permit employers to use the CFAA to bring these claims into federal court. The tome comprises pages and discusses over cases, statutes and treaties.
Accordingly, it is appropriate to conceive of Electronic Evidence as an encyclopedia of sorts. The lead author is Stephen Mason of Bedfordshire, England, but the new edition of Electronic Evidence contains the work of 23 other contributors, whose work was led by Mason. Why read a book discussing so many jurisdictions? Certainly, no one could practice in each of those nations. And certainly, the book is not an exhaustive coverage of each jurisdiction. It is, rather, more in the nature of an overview.
Why read it? The U. Myriad Genetics, Inc. How do the theories of patent law and those of race intersect? Revitalization, revolution, renaissance. After decades of sheer decline, reluctance, and even reversal of known, effective applications, law and policy have emerged as primary tools for making change in public health. Determining legal responsibility for addressing negative communal health outcomes—whether in the public or private sector—is wrought with political tension.
At the heart of many uses of public health law are inexorable conflicts with individual rights. Few public health legal interventions arise without arguments from various entities and individuals about perceived or actual impacts on their specific interests. Social scientists have long recognized the strong tendency to preference identified over unidentified or merely statistical victims. This so-called unidentified lives phenomenon is visible in many areas of U. The article argues that public health law—with its roots in a preliberal vision of the police power, and its close association with public health practice, which emphasizes preventing disease in populations—stands apart from much of American law by focusing on the interests of unidentified lives.
Complex problems and emerging technologies challenge the public health system and create both opportunities and risks for population health. To date, there is no risk governance framework that is robust, rigorous, and applicable to population health. This article first explores existing risk governance frameworks and discusses their potential applicability to population health challenges. Public health law, even optimally developed and implemented, can fall short of its goals if it is not enforced. Enforcement theorists note four considerations in framing relevant law: likelihood that infractions will be detected, liability standards, sanction types, and penalty size.
By these standards, enforcement provisions in public health law are variable, and somewhat inconsistent. In addition, enforcement can be controversial when its targets feel it infringes on their ability to act in their own interests. We present examples in current practice and identify cost-effective enforcement strategies that support objectives of public health law. We apply enforcement theory to four specific objects of public health regulation that experience enforcement challenges: all-terrain vehicles, motor vehicle safety belts, child passenger safety, and driving under the influence.
A growing culture of denialism in the realm of public health seeks to reject long-standing interventions based on broad scientific consensus and attempts to manufacture the appearance of legitimate debate on important issues, where the weight of scientific evidence actually precludes genuine dispute. Health-care associated infections HAIs are a major public health issue. In response, 29 states currently provide public reporting of hospital-specific HAI rates, but there is considerable diversity in how states present information.
In related work, we assess the efficacy of these efforts by scoring individual states on the content, credibility, and usability of their public reports and websites. This article addresses a related but distinct topic, by focusing on three states California, Pennsylvania, and Washington that have made substantial changes in their HAI public reports, websites, or both during the short period since they began disclosing HAI rates.
Indeed, Washington has made two sets of substantial changes to its website. How have these changes affected the content, credibility, and usability of these reports and websites? Stated more bluntly, does change mean progress? Experts agree that influenza vaccination of health-care personnel HCP is the best method of preventing nosocomial outbreaks. Because voluntary uptake among HCP has not achieved recommended levels, hundreds of health-care facilities and twenty states have implemented mandatory vaccination programs. However, employee unions assert that unilateral changes to working conditions violate established principles of collective bargaining.
In this article, we argue that mandatory vaccination in the health-care context is supported by ethics, science, and law. We examine nosocomial influenza outbreaks and how hospitals have attempted to curb infections through mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies. Finally, we suggest an approach to resolving the dispute between HCP labor representatives and health-care facility management. The concern was that the published research could be used to produce biological weapons. Questions about the proper balance between encouraging the free flow of scientific information and protecting public health followed.
This article discusses recent attempts by the U. It posits that the best way to protect the public health when dual-use research of concern is involved is to ensure that the implications of the proposed research are scrutinized by qualified people before the research begins. The article then proposes that requiring private sector researchers to demonstrate that they submitted their research protocols to the appropriate government body for a review of the potentially harmful uses of the research, before applying for a patent, is an effective way to ensure that privately funded research is subject to the same scrutiny as publicly funded research, while preserving First Amendment rights of free expression.
Secondhand tobacco smoke is a recognized health hazard that poses an especially high risk for children. Four U. Items of particular interest included 1 motives for introducing the bill; 2 the development of a policy solution; and 3 the importance of the policy context. To understand these factors, telephone interviews were conducted with the primary sponsor or key staffers of the bills in all four states that have enacted these laws. Open and axial coding of the interviews yielded themes around the successful enactment of these laws.
We also analyzed the language of the bills, and the timing of introduction and enactment. The research indicates that the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and children motivated all of the interviewees. Personal experiences were also important. Most interviewees noted little opposition to the bills. Nevertheless, sponsors carefully considered details of the laws and negotiated specific aspects including applicable age, punishment, and enforcement.
Our results will be useful to advocates and policy makers in other U. However, similar to the now-defunct forensic practice of comparative bullet-lead analysis that had been admitted for almost four decades in judicial proceedings, there has never been any scientifically acceptable hypothesis testing of the underlying premises required for practice validation. Existing studies in the domain literature typically presented in court testimonies as support for specific source attributions are pervasively and fatally flawed such that they have no external validity for extrapolation to universal assumption.
They are, thus, of no value for validation of the critical premise of discernible uniqueness in real-world forensic scenarios and are largely irrelevant to any particular criminal judicial proceeding. A practical solution is offered that would allow a scientifically defensible opinion to be proffered to courts until comprehensive and meaningful hypothesis testing can be conducted by the mainstream scientific community.
Although regression analysis is a popular tool for proving causation in environmental litigation, its probative value depends upon the validity of assumptions concerning the observed data. When the data do not satisfy these assumptions, the statistical significance of the analysis may be overstated. Because autocorrelation may not be apparent, its presence is frequently overlooked, resulting in erroneous statistical conclusions.
Expert witnesses disagreed as to the presence of autocorrelation in the data, and if present, the extent to which it resulted in overstated statistical significance. This article reanalyzes the data from In re Consolidated Salmonid Cases to explain the fundamentals of detecting and remedying autocorrelation in simple linear regression.
Ex ante disclosure of patent licensing terms has been proposed as one solution to the problem of holdup in standard setting. Critics of ex ante disclosure argue that requiring early disclosure of licensing terms will impede standards-development processes and create additional legal risks for participants. Yet, in a NIST-funded study that we conducted of three standards development organizations SDOs , we found no evidence that ex ante disclosure policies resulted in measurable negative effects on the number of standards produced, staff time commitments or quality of standards, nor was there compelling evidence that ex ante policies caused the lengthening of time required for standardization or the depression of royalty rates.
There was also evidence to suggest that the adoption of ex ante policies may have contributed to positive effects observed on some of these variables. We concluded, on the basis of the data reviewed, that the process-based criticisms of ex ante policies and the predicted negative effects flowing from the adoption of such polices, were not supported by the evidence reviewed.
Nevertheless, ex ante policies have not achieved significant support among standards-development organizations. The causes for this lack of support may include self-interested advocacy by market participants pursuing a patent monetization strategy, as well as fear by other participants that complying with such policies could be costly, inconvenient, and likely to provoke otherwise passive patent holders to seek royalties on their standards-essential patents.
Moreover, because of patent-stacking effects, the benefits of ex ante disclosures may not be clear in SDOs characterized by large quantities of standards-essential patents held by multiple participants. However, I argue that ex ante disclosure of licensing terms, while perhaps insufficient, standing alone, to address the effects of patent stacking in the standards context, is a necessary element of most proposed solutions to the stacking problem.
Ex ante disclosure is also likely to lessen disputes regarding compliance with fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory FRAND licensing commitments. Accordingly, the standards-development community should reconsider the adoption of policies requiring ex ante disclosure of licensing terms for standards-essential patents. In particular, courts have struggled with whether to permit the prosecution to use autopsy reports in homicide trials if the medical examiner who wrote the report is not available to testify. These reports are often crucial to homicide prosecutions, prompting the concern that their exclusion may function as a statute of limitations on murder.
Although there has been a series of Supreme Court cases addressing the Confrontation Clause and scientific evidence, these decisions provide little guidance on the issue. Nevertheless, conventional autopsy reports are likely to be considered testimonial statements that are subject to the Confrontation Clause and therefore cannot be introduced at trial without the testimony of their authors.
However, the use of radiological imaging to perform virtual autopsies, called virtopsies , may provide a solution, as they rely on nontestimonial data. In this analysis and critique of electronic signature forms and laws as they are developing around the world, Stephen Mason explains the authentication, evidentiary, and authority purposes of electronic signatures and their historical antecedents in signature law generally.
Without attempting to be prescriptive, Mason presents electronic signatures as being essential to establish identity relationships and determine legal responsibility in the information economy. Electronic signatures are not only the primary method of authentication in law, they also represent or symbolize identity relationships in a given context. To study this book is to study the law of identity. In doing so, the opinion conflates the role of likelihoods in Bayesian inference and their role in the likelihood-based approach to inference.
One need not be a Bayesian to advocate the presentation of likelihoods, but both likelihoodism and Bayesianism lay bare an important distinction—testimony about hypotheses concerning the origin of a trace differs from testimony about the extent to which the trace evidence supports these source hypotheses. Forensic science experts should testify with this distinction in mind so that they confine their testimony to assessments of how probative the evidence is and do not engage in source attribution. Along with informal standardization organizations, trade associations, and private entities, classical standard-setting organizations such as the International Organization for Standardization ISO and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD have been actively involved in the development of standards and guidance materials in the field of nanotechnologies.
These developments have led to new relationships and partnerships, shifting the attention from traditional state regulation to polycentric regulatory structures in which the government is not the sole source of decision-making authority. With these modes of regulatory governance, the formulation or implementation of decisions is on the hands of various actors, who are not directly elected by the citizens to make decisions that may become collectively or de facto binding and impact the interests of the public and industry.
These facts lead to many dilemmas on whether such nonstate arrangements can be considered legitimate and on what principles their legitimacy can be measured. Nevertheless, while the importance of standards has been widely recognized in nanotechnology, little attention is paid to the issue of legitimacy, and in particular to the actors involved and the processes by which these standards are negotiated and developed at the international level.
This article analyzes the potential and the legitimacy implications of the standardization activities related to health and safety nanotechnology standards. In particular, it explores how the regulatory activities of the nanotechnology standardization developments can be analyzed and evaluated from the viewpoint of legitimacy.
What are the problems with the current approaches to legitimacy and what sources of legitimacy can be used to analyze nanotechnology standardization? And, what lessons can we distill by looking at the organizational processes, mechanisms, and strategies that transnational regulators follow to establish their legitimacy and authority in nanotechnology? Adequacy of conflict resolution and its relationship to general problem-solving ability, performance under stress, and selected emotional factors. The adjustment of social studies subject matter to fit the needs of high school students in Windham, Connecticut.
The administration of an inter-disciplinary feasibility study, designed as a performance based dissertation in educational administration. Administration of physical education programs for Jewish community centers with limited facilities. Administrative techniques to improve relationships between cooperating teachers and their paraprofessionals.
The adolescent development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people : conceptual and methodological issues. Adolescent perception of responsibility and its relationship to progress and response to psychotherapy. Adolescents' defense mechanisms and associations with behavioral symptomatology : a longitudinal study. Affiliation and athletic participation among African-American university students : an exploratory study. Against custodial education: the introduction of open campus into Worcester South High School; a historical documentation.
Aggregation of interacting polyelectrolytes and sequence and conformations of polyampholytes. Alienation and interpersonal perception among female adolescent runaways and truants. Alienation as a function of perceived disjunction between present behavior and goals. Alienation from society, self estrangement, and personality characteristics from the MMP1 in normals and schizophrenics. Aliphatic polyesters with pendent unsaturation and poly ethylene glycol groups : synthesis, characterization, and encapsulation studies. All hands are enjoined to spin : textile production in seventeenth-century Massachusetts.
Allocation of behavior by Northern blue jays in response to prey density changes in two foraging areas. Alternative life styles in university residences: personal and environmental factors. Alternatives in African education: the need for a synthesis between the tradition and the new systems. Altruism and moral development; a study of the relationship between children's sharing behavior and level of moral development.
Always look on the bright side of life : the relationship between coping humor, negative life events, and life satisfaction in American and Israeli college students. American identity crisis : the relation between national, social, and personal identity in a multiethnic sample. American workers, American empire : Morrison I. Swift, Boston, Massachusetts and the making of working-class imperial citizenship, Analyses of response latency and hypothesis behavior for learning set performance obtained from the bluejay Cyancocitta cristata using two and three dimensional stimuli. An analysis and evaluation of the Wechsler-Bellevue patterns of alcoholics with auditory and visual hallucinations with an attempt to discover any discriminable diagnostic pattern.
An analysis of counselor interaction with disadvantaged youth in a compensatory educational program utilizing four selected case studies. Analysis of critical issues and incidents in the New York City school crisis, , and their implications for urban education in the 's. An analysis of leader behavior and leadership styles through the case study method. An analysis of molecular parameters governing phase separation in a reacting polyurethane system. An analysis of socio-economic status and self-esteem in relation to minority student academic accomplishments in compensatory programs.
An analysis of some of the characteristics of a group of students at South Hadley High School in relation to their use of automobiles. An analysis of the changes in the freshman year experience at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, An analysis of the effectiveness of selected short term summer training programs as sources of information about educational innovations.
An analysis of the effects of a summer remediation and counseling sequence on nonadmissible applicants' goal attainment at a regional community college in western Massachusetts. An analysis of the effects of group counseling on the reduction of transfer-shock on community college students transferring to the University of Massachusetts.
Analysis of the health cards of one hundred pupils in the Longmeadow public schools.
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An analysis of the interactions between a county community mental health center and local school districts. Specht, Jr. An analysis of three elementary science programs in the design of a competency-based pre-service elementary science education program. An analysis of varying levels of achievement attained by pupils from rural communities in a consolidated high school. An analytical study of teacher certification processes as perceived by leadership personnel within the teacher education and certification sections of the fifty state education agencies, with special emphasis on the development of the performance-based movement.
Anatomy of a helping situation: some personality and situational determinants of helping in a conflict situation involving another's psychological distress. Anatomy of the nodose ganglion in the rat: central projections of afferent fibers in the hepatic vagus. Androgen effects on food intake, body weight and carcass composition in male rats. Animacy effects in picture naming and bilingual translation : perceptual and semantic contributions to concept-mediation.
Animistic responses as influenced by experimentally strengthened associative chains and set-inducing instructions. Antecedents and distractors in the anaphor resolution process : the influence of relative strength of association in memory. Anticipated efficacy and difficulty of action as determinants of reactions to fear arousing communications. The application of a specific questioning model to two-hundred thirteen teacher-pupil conferences in individualized reading in three elementary schools.
An application of Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring to a component of a teacher preparation program. An application of psychometric models and ATI methodology to the evaluation of instruction. An application of statistical method in an effort to improve the results of high school marking system.
Application of the general linear model to the analysis of time series data, and philosophical reflections. Applications of the olefin metathesis reaction; Application of carbon-hydrogen bond activation to the surface oxidation of polypropylene and polyethylene. Approach and avoidance responses to a TAT dimension as related to reaction time and galvanic skin response on a word association test.
Arousal and reactivity of schizophrenics and normals as a function of event expectancy. Art and the early Third Republic designs for social engineering in France Numbers, Jr. Assembly, cross-linking and encapsulation using functionalized nanoparticles at liquid interfaces. Assessing adaptation equivalence in cross-lingual and cross-cultural assessment using linear structural equations models.
Assessing and creating the community environmental press in selected independent secondary schools. Assessing community perceptions of the public schools using public opinion polling. Assessing the vocational maturity of students in the East Central State of Nigeria.
An assessment of a cooperative education program for disadvantaged youth in Boston High School, Boston, Massachusetts. An assessment of a team governance-team teaching project in the junior high school, Rockland, Massachusetts. Assessment of educational environments: the public alternative school and its students. An assessment of the future in-service training needs of school principals in Massachusetts: a delphi study. An assessment of the second-year operation of the team-teaching, team-governance program in the Rockland Junior High School, Rockland, Massachusetts. Attachment and psychosocial functioning of depressed, remitted depressed, and nondepressed women and their partners.
An attempt to measure the effectiveness of vocational education in agriculture in the State of Massachusetts. Attempts, control and weight reduction : an application of a theory of planned behavior. Attention and eye movement control : interaction of top-down and bottom-up information. Attention in the preschool classroom : the relationships among child gender, child misbehavior, and teacher attention. Attentional patterns in 5-year-olds' toy play : test of attentional inertia in toy play.
Attitudes toward women and equality : individual difference effects on gender-relevant decision-making. Attributed freedom, locus of control and the stimulus person's intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Attribution for conflict in close relationships and its relation to memory and relationship evaluation. An auditory and visual discrimination test for kindergarten and first grade children; a new approach. The availability of salient and conceptually central properties of concepts in different contexts. The AzTEC millimeter-wave camera : design, integration, performance, and the characterization of the sub- millimeter galaxy population.
Barely staying alive : a case study of a male with anorexia nervosa and a survey of therapists working with anorectic patients. Barriers to treatment in an ethnically diverse sample of women with serious mental illness. Basic and superordinate level categorization by autistic preschoolers and their typical peers. The basic theoretical contribution of Chester I. Barnard to contemporary administrative thought.
Basileos Anglorum; a study of the life and reign of King Athelstan of England, Becoming a psychotherapist : influences on career choice and implications for practice. The Beecher-Tilton adultery scandal: family, religion, and politics in Brooklyn, Before the second wave : college women, cultural literacy, sexuality and identity, Behavior and attitude change in emotionally disturbed children through the combined use of modeling, roleplaying and reinforcement.
Belief systems, exposure to stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Between 'true women' and 'new women': Mount Holyoke students, to Between daya and doctor : a history of the impact of modern nation-state building on health east and west of the Jordan river. Between the black diaspora of enslavement and the Nigerian diaspora since the demise of colonialism : an assessment of the consequences of two historic migrations to the United States. Santiago Nazario. Biased recall in anxiety : competing forces of emotional avoidance and information processing biases.
Birth control knowledge, attitudes and practice : a comparison of working and middle class Puerto Rican and white American women. Birth order and personality traits, style, and structure: differences reflected by projective tests. The black college as a contributor to the intellectual common market: readiness of faculty and students of the black college for international involvement. Black neighbors : race and the limits of reform in the American settlement house movement, Black students' perceptions of independent schools: a comparison of scores on the learning atmosphere attitude scale with selected school and student characteristics.
The blacks, and the right of revolution: The rise and dialogue of Black and White militancy and radicalism in antebellum America. Blocking and stimulus salience in the pigeon Columba livia nictating membrane response. Born-again Christians need not apply: religious discrimination in clinical psychology graduate school admissions. Bringing wildlife to millions; : William Temple Hornaday; the early years; British foreign policy and public opinion: The Munich Week, September , Brown adipose tissue of hypothalamic knife-cut rats : effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets.
Building different types of causal relationships : with implications for special populations the case of right hemisphere damage.
Burnings and blessings : the cultural reality of the supernatural across early modern spaces. The Camp Weather Bureau as a means of attaining some of the goals of science teaching. A canonical correlational analysis of the strong vocational interest blank and the California Psychological Inventory.
Capillary electrophoresis of polyelectrolytes in dilute neutral polymer solutions : simulations and model experiments. Cardiac and behavioral responsivity to repeated auditory stimulation in the human preterm neonate. A case analysis of institutional change and its relationship to conflict with a focus on policy formulation. A case study : implementation of a plan for educational reform in the Washington, D.
A case study in urban teacher education: the Center for Inner City Studies, A case study of a model teacher training school in Ivory Coast: student characteristics and participatory behavior. A case study of an action-research consultant style of intervention in organization development.
A case study of the federal response to the education component in the model cities program. A case study of the problems encountered in establishing a Smith-Hughes vocational agricultural course in the Brattleboro High School and its patronage area. A case study of the problems encountered upon assuming a high school principalship.
A case study: basis for development of a curriculum based on images of self and environment. Cells vs fibers of passage in the lateral hypothalamic syndrome: the use of monosodium-L-glutamate. Certain verbal characteristics and visual interaction in an interview setting as a function of interpersonal distance, room size and induced stress.
Changes in intelligence test scores of psychotic patients given before and after electric shock treatments. Changes in self-regard and regard for others as a function of interaction group experiences. Characteristics of teachers who have received an "outstanding teacher" award from New England Institutions of Higher Education in the five year period beginning with the academic year Characterologically difficult clients in a graduate training clinic : an exploratory investigation.
Chemical, structural, and electrical characterization of poly p-phenylene vinylene. Chemistry laboratory behaviors affecting scientific understanding and attitude development. Child and parent coviewing of television : its extent and its relationship to cognitive performance.
Children's and adults' ability to generalize properties to novel objects : implications for theories of categorization. Children's noun-pair learning as a function of subject-generated or experimenter-provided strings and response measure. Children's responses to the loss of a parent : the interaction between the family and the intrapsychic mourning process.
Children's television attention and comprehension: the effect of instructions in auditory, visual, and audiovisual stories. China and the United States, ; how the administrative problems concerning tariff, extraterritoriality, and communications affected diplomatic relationship between China and the United States. Choline acetyltransferase activity during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. A clarification and analysis of the concept of team teaching in the elementary school. Classical reward conditioning of the heart rate response to auditory stimulation in 3 month old infants.
Client attitudes generated by varied interaction distances and counselor trunk lean in the dyadic counseling interaction. Clinicians' accounts in PSC case records of the termination and transfer of psychotherapy clients. The closing down of institutions: new strategies in youth services: a case study of the Massachusetts experience. The cognitive and emotional reactions of college gymnasts during competition as a function of success, security of performance, phase of performance and sex of subject.
Cognitive construals of success and failure as a function of level of self-esteem and level of defensiveness. Cognitive differences among three-year-old children with symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and aggression. The cognitive significance of dialect variation in formal education: a survey of research and an analysis. Cognitive styles of "externals" and "internals" in a probability learning task. College intimacy as a predictor of divorce in middle life : a year longitudinal study.
College student nonprofessionals in mental health settings: the effects of participation.
Women in Film (pioneers)
Combating racism through teacher training: the documentation of the development of a course in survival strategies. The committees of correspondence, inspection and safety in old Hampshire County, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution. The communication of counselor empathy, respect and genuineness through verbal and non-verbal channels.
Community mental health centers and the problems of self-sufficiency: an application of theories of organizational adaptation to the environment. A comparative analysis of the perceptions of the staff of the Amherst-Pelham Regional School District as they relate to the Performance Objective Program. A comparative analysis of two models of early childhood education on the variables of teachers' conceptions of motivation and motivational strategies. A comparative study of attitudes toward undergraduate education for the hotel and restaurant industry.
A comparative study of Efe Pygmy and Lese one-, two- and three-year-olds of the Ituri forest of northeastern Zaire : the influence of subsistence-related variables and children's age and gender on social-emotional development. A comparative study of marks in some Connecticut Valley high schools with enrollment over A comparative study of parochial school and public school pupils entering grade 9. A comparative study of student and teacher perceptions regarding decision-making in selected open and traditional classrooms. A comparative study of the movements of the breathing muscles in speech and quiet breathing of deaf and normal subjects.
A comparative study of the philosophies of education of John Dewey and Jacques Maritain. The comparative validity of mental tests and silent reading tests in predicting high school success. The comparative validity of sense and non-sense material in determining mathematical aptitude. A comparison between deaf and hearing children in regard to the use of verbs and nouns in compositions describing a short motion picture story.
A comparison between projected slides and wall map for teaching geographical concepts. A comparison of enrollment of public and parochial schools in the archdiocese of Boston. A comparison of fading, non-fading and a combination of procedures in training word recognition with moderately retarded adults. A comparison of good and poor lip readers among the deaf in the attainment of concepts. Comparison of hypertensives and normotensives on behavioral aggression and sensitivity to hostile cues. Comparison of items on high school permanent record forms and employee merit rating forms. Barrera, Jr.
A comparison of measures of psychological differentiation and boundary including their relationships to subjective experiences of self and relationships in normal young adults. A comparison of responses to the original and the oppositely stated items of the Learning Atmosphere Attitude Scale. A comparison of retarded and average readers on a visual and aural paired-associates task.
Schomer, Jr. The comparison of systems of final placing of contestants in rural youth contests. A comparison of terminal goal attainment of high ability low achieving adolescent males utilizing two methods of counseling. The idea for On the Road, Kerouac's second novel, was formed during the late s in a series of notebooks, and then typed out on a continuous reel of paper during three weeks in April It was first published by Viking Press in When the book was originally released, The New York Times hailed it as "the most beautifully executed, the clearest and the most important utterance yet made by the generation Kerouac himse.
She now lives in Suffolk. Early life McCrory was born in Paddington. She was educated at Queenswood School near Hatfield, Hertfordshire and then spent a year living in Italy. Upon her return to Britain, she began studying acting at the Drama Centre in London. A list of film serials by year of release. Grandon Kathlyn Williams Presumed lost. Considered to be the first "cliffhanger" serial.
Sherlock Holmes is the overall title given to the series of Sherlock Holmes adaptations produced by the British television company Granada Television between and The first two series were shown under the title The Adventures Of Sherlock Holmes and were followed by subsequent series with the titles of other short story collections by Arthur Conan Doyle. His portrayal remains very popular and is accepted by some as the definitive on-screen version of Sherlock Holmes. Watson is portrayed as the kind of thoroughly competent sidekick that Holmes would want. The cemetery was founded in and has been used for many funerals of film stars and other celebrities since then.
Those in non-public areas are marked NP. A John Aasen — , silent movie giant Forrest J Ackerman — , science fiction, horror, pop culture historian and writer and editor of Famous Monsters of Filmland magazine Art Acord — , actor Anita Louise Adler — , actress, wife of producer, Buddy Adler Maurice "Buddy" Adler — , producer, husband of actress, Anita Louise Donald Addrisi — , singer, one-half of the Addrisi Brothers singing-songwriting duo John G. Adolfi — , director, actor and screenwriter of Warner Bros films. Ahmanson, Sr. Ahmanson Sr. Dude Cowboy is a American western film.
David Howard directed the film his final one and Morton Grant wrote the screenplay. Filming began 25 April It was first published on 14 October ; the individual stories had been serialised in The Strand Magazine between July and June The stories are not in chronological order, and the only characters common to all twelve are Holmes and Dr.
The stories are related in first-person narrative from Watson's point of view. In general the stories in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes identify, and try to correct, social injustices. Holmes is portrayed as offering a new, fairer sense of justice. The stories were well received, and boosted the subscriptions figures of The Strand Magazine, prompting Doyle to be able to demand more money for his next set of stories.
The first story, "A Scandal in Bohemia", includes the character of Irene Adler, who, despite being featured only within this one story by Doyle, is a prominent character in modern Sherlock Holme. Sophie Anna Ward born 30 December is an English actress. She trained as a dancer under world-famous ballerina Merle Park. During the s she turned her acting energies to stagework, with considerable acclaim and success. The programme adapted 42 of the original stories in 41 episodes, with 36 running for 50 minutes in a one-hour timeslot , and five being feature-length specials.
Adventures ran for two series totalling 13 episodes, from April to June and August to September Theatre director Peter Hall says James ranks amongst the great English classical actresses. She is also known as Mrs.
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Pincher, the breastfeeding mother in Little Britain Since , she has starred in the Netflix series Anne with an E. Early life and family James was born in Maidenhead, Berkshire, to. Early life Kane attended St. Anselm's Parochial School in the Bronx. She was the youngest of three children. Her father, Louis Schroeder, the son of a German immigrant, was employed intermittently; her Irish immigrant mother, Ellen born Dixon Schroeder, worked in a laundry.
By the time she was 15 years old, Kane was onstage professionally, touring the Orpheum Circuit with the Marx Brothers in On the Balcony. She played the New York Palace for the first time in Her Broadway days started t. Beverly Homer DeLay August 12, — July 4, was an American aviator who pioneered many of the popular stunts used in the early barnstorming air-shows. He soon adapted these for the movies, where he appeared with top Hollywood stars.
DeLay died in a plane-crash that was almost certainly caused by sabotage, but no-one was ever charged in connection with the death. DeLay first worked as a gold mine manager, then became a racecar driver, and later airport manager and owner, which evolved into performing for motion pictures. DeLay's early daredevil style was theatrically demonstrated in his high-speed race moves in the domed dance pavilion on Pickering Pleasure Pier in Ocean Park, California. His theatrical family entertainment history reaches back over years to Europe, including stage actors, dancers, musicians.
A serial film, film serial or just serial , movie serial or chapter play, is a motion picture form popular during the first half of the 20th century, consisting of a series of short subjects exhibited in consecutive order at one theater, generally advancing weekly, until the series is completed. Generally, each serial involves a single set of characters, protagonistic and antagonistic, involved in a single story, which has been edited into chapters after the fashion of serial fiction and the episodes cannot be shown out of order or as a single or a random collection of short subjects.
Each chapter was screened at a movie theater for one week, and ended with a cliffhanger, in which characters found themselves in perilous situations with little apparent chance of escape. Viewers had to return each week to see the cliffhangers resolved and to follow the continuing story. Movie serials were especially popular with children, and for many youths in the first half of the 20th century a typical Saturday matinee at.
Doree Shafrir is an American author and senior writer at BuzzFeed. Career Shafrir departed a history Ph. She next worked for Rolling Stone before joining Buzzfeed in as an editor and culture writer. Gene Gauntier and Jack J. It was one of the first companies to make films abroad and to set up winter production facilities, first in Florida and then in California.
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Kalem was sold to Vitagraph Studios in The company was named for their initials K, L, and M. Kalem immediately joined other studios in the Motion Picture Patents Company that held a monopoly on production and distribution. Needing to raise more capital, the two experienced filmmakers approached Chicago businessman George Kleine to. Originally a physician, in he published A Study in Scarlet, the first of four novels and more than fifty short stories about Holmes and Dr.
The Sherlock Holmes stories are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction. Doyle was a prolific writer; his non-Sherlockian works include fantasy and science fiction stories about Professor Challenger and humorous stories about the Napoleonic soldier Brigadier Gerard, as well as plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction and historical novels. One of Doyle's early short stories, "J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement", helped to popularise the mystery of the Mary Celeste. Name Doyle is often referred to as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle or simply Conan Doyle implying that "Conan" is part of a compound surname as opposed to his given middle name.
His baptism entry in the register of St Mary's. George Alfred Trenholm February 25, — December 9, was a South Carolina businessman, financier, politician, and slaveholding planter who owned several plantations and strongly supported the Confederate States of America. Although he was imprisoned briefly after the war and suffered some economic setbacks, Trenholm continued to prosper. In the postwar years, Trenholm acted as a major philanthropist, aiding both blacks and whites in South Carolina. He also served on railroad and bank boards, and was elected to state office again in and died in office.
His maternal grandfather, Comte de Greffin, w. Jake Holmes born December 28, in San Francisco, California is an American singer-songwriter and jingle writer who began a recording career in the s. Following military service, he resumed his music career. The championship was won by Kilkenny who defeated Cork by a six-point margin in the final. Semi-finals Kilkenny had a massive point victory over Galway and Cork defeated Wexford by seven points in the All-Ireland semi-finals.
Final Ann Leahy scored after just 12 seconds in one of the quickest goals in a final of the All Ireland camogie championship;. Breda Holmes scored two goals and Clare Jones scored another as Kilkenny won the final. Cork were to behind at half time in the final.
Pat Roche complained in the Irish Times: Nobody on a losing side wishes to be easily identified but this was stretching it too far. Sherlock Holmes and Dr. The movies are made close to the plot of the books, but have some notable, and sometimes quite humorous differences, e. Watson within first weeks of living in Baker Street was trying to figure out what was Holmes profession.
Upon witnessing Holmes dressed in disguise, seeing some strange visitors, Watson comes to a conclusion that Holmes is a criminal mistermind Cast Vasily Livanov as Sherlock Holmes Vitaly Solomin as Dr. Watson Rina Zelyona. John Watson.