Ships must be able to accommodate the installation and operation of both winches for deployment and recovery of the Shallow Profiler Moorings. Improving ease of use and transport of equipment is a priority and should be considered during technology refresh and refurbishment. Minor design improvements have been made to infrastructure to ensure safer deployment and recovery without altering the overall function. For example, the Coastal Profiler Mooring anchor design was modified to include a top plate with multiple bales for recovery by ROV and safer handling on deck Figures 2C,D.
Figure 2. Examples of equipment modifications. Enhancements in Surface Buoy tower modifications from A,B include, rearranging halo components to move telemetry sensors down and wind sensors up; replacing flat tower legs with tubular legs to prevent torsion; widening of vane to improve ability of buoy to point toward the wind.
In addition to the biannual maintenance schedule, some coastal assets require quarterly servicing. As these are both relatively small pieces of infrastructure, cruises are conducted via a small ship with an A-frame. Cruises must be timed to optimal weather conditions and to ensure sufficient intervals between cruises for refurbishment and recalibration of equipment.
For example, northern hemisphere Global cruises Irminger Sea and Station Papa must occur between June-August for optimal wind and wave conditions; southern hemisphere Argentine Basin and Southern Ocean conditions are best in December-February. Equipment must be shipped 2 months before cruises in the southern hemisphere to arrive in time. Coastal cruises must be spaced as close to 6 months apart as possible Spring and Fall time periods to allow sufficient time for refurbishment and recalibration of equipment before redeployment.
During cruises, flexibility is critical because of the weather-dependence of many activities. Looking at four cruises to the Southern Ocean Array between February —December , even though these cruises were scheduled during the ideal climatological window, at least a third of the days during each cruise had weather sufficiently bad that moorings were not able to be deployed.
During the cruise, two thirds of the days had sufficiently bad weather to prevent operations. Optimal service frequencies of components based on historical experience with similar technologies are being reviewed and updated continually after each turn cruise. For uncabled moorings, the degradation of mooring components, biofouling of instruments, and depletion of batteries are the main drivers of the maintenance schedule. Annual inspections of deployed junction boxes on the Cabled Array confirmed they may only require refurbishment on a 5-year timeframe, assuming no refresh is needed to accommodate new PI-supplied instruments.
In some cases, plans for repeated use of specific infrastructure components were found untenable based on inspection of recovered gear, e. Field verification sampling is an important component of all OOI cruises to determine whether data coming from sensors are reliable when first deployed. This is done using a variety of sensors and sampling, including shipboard meteorological, upper ocean and flow-through systems, CTD casts, bottle samples, and deployment of co-located sensors. Field verification data have been used to confirm the correct assignment of configuration metadata calibration coefficients and update software algorithms used to process raw data into derived data products.
Quantitative performance assessment of infrastructure while deployed and upon retrieval is critical to improving operational performance. A collective, comprehensive performance assessment mechanism is a future goal of the OOI. These metrics will help to optimize the OOI and inform the broader observing community of performance issues and solutions. Though a comprehensive system has yet to be developed, we include metrics where possible in examples in the following sections. All OOI cables are serialized and tested allowing for results to be tracked to identify trends and determine appropriate replacement cycles e.
The OOI has collaborated with vendors to improve quality control and capture data to calculate component life cycle, predict failure, improve platform reliability, and reduce refurbishment costs.
After the initial failure, it was discovered that the majority of the failed cables used one specific connector. Working closely with the vendor, a leak path was discovered, generated by cathodic delamination between the metal connector shell and the polyurethane material that molds it to the polyurethane cable. The vendor modified the connector design and molding process and the following year all cables passed the post-recovery test.
By engaging with vendors, these technological enhancements and best practices are made more broadly available to the global observing community.
In the program shifted from manual testing to an automated cable test system for all copper wire cables. Consistent procedures have resulted in improvements in testing speed, accuracy, and data storage. Whereas manual testing for 2, cables in required the work of 1. Additional adjustments include the implementation of a visual inspection regimen and cable protection and handling best practices e.
Lastly, instrument cables are now tested as soon as possible after recovery, since faults can disappear when cables are tested dry. The OOI has made significant design improvements to the reliability of the remaining profilers. Profilers intended for long, unattended deployments on the OOI have substantial design challenges compared to fixed instrument moorings, yet offer unique advantages including collection of continuous vertical measurements. In the following subsections, we describe some challenges and successes. The cabled profilers are additionally modified to add Wi-Fi and battery recharge capabilities.
However, some notable operational issues remain, such as slippage, fouling, docking challenges, and power limitations. Slippage describes the situation when the drive wheel of a WFP fails to maintain traction with the wire. Slippage occurs at either end of the profiler path, but usually at the top. This is likely associated with mooring wire motion from waves and currents, which tends to be greater near the sea surface.
Parking at the top of the profile can lead to additional issues for the WFPs. Extended time in the euphotic zone can exacerbate biofouling of the onboard instruments e. To reduce the threat of biofouling and slippage, round-trip profiling allowing parking at the bottom is used when possible. Improvements were made to the Cabled Deep Profiler Moorings to mitigate docking challenges. The Wi-Fi antenna in the dock was redesigned allowing a good wireless connection when the profiler is parked in any orientation in the dock. Winched Science Pods on the Cabled Shallow Profiler Moorings have been highly reliable, as have the instruments on the accompanying m stationary platforms.
Some profiler issues have been noted, including failure of a dynamic seal, cable wear, and an oil leak; however, since they have successfully completed more than 27, profiles. However, they also have had performance challenges. The cabled Endurance CSPP was replaced with an uncabled version due to tether-handling issues with the winch when the profiler was near the air-sea interface and insufficient power was available from the seafloor cable due to the needed cable length. The uncabled CSPP can adaptively respond to wave motions to prevent overwrapping from snap loads, using minimal power.
CSPP deployments have also been suspended at the Pioneer Array due to issues such as battery problems and breakaways. Breakaways are more problematic at Pioneer as the moorings are further offshore than at Endurance where successful uncabled CSPP deployments have taken place. The main cause of profiler stoppages is power system control problems. While improvements have been made redesigning the battery interface, switching units from Iridium to cellular when close to shore, lengthening the antenna, etc.
Coastal Surface-Piercing Profilers are relatively new to ocean observing and their technology is constantly evolving as more is learned about these platforms during deployment. After initial test deployments, the original design for the Coastal and Global surface buoys was improved by inclusion of hydrogen gas detection to monitor and ensure safe hydrogen levels in the buoy well , as well as enhancements to charging circuitry, and tower design Figures 2A,B.
Additionally, these moorings were modified to better adapt to harsh conditions, including winds, waves, and icing. For example, during winter at the Irminger Sea Array, sub-zero air combined with waves and wind-driven spray have led to icing of the surface meteorology and air-sea flux sensors, interrupting their data collection. The thematic orientation of the panels is primarily a function of the dominant means by which each community conducts its scientific investigations. Thus, since planetary science, for example, is intimately concerned with spacecraft observations on or in close proximity to particular solar system bodies, a panel structure organized, to first approximation, around like objects—e.
For reasons of continuity, the most recent planetary science decadal survey explicitly chose, with one exception, 2 the same thematic structure that was used by the planetary science decadal study. This primary organizational scheme was supplemented by semi-formal, cross-panel national capabilities working groups addressing topics such as theory and modeling and instrument development, among others. The astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey adopted a complex substructure consisting of five science frontiers panels and four program prioritization panels. The former were charged to define key science priorities in key components of the cosmos, such as extrasolar planetary systems, stars, galaxies, and so on.
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Once their tasks were completed, the science frontiers panels disbanded and their priorities were passed on to the program prioritization panels. The program prioritization panels, organized around different observing wavelengths, techniques, and regimes, were charged to come up with the most appropriate means for implementing the science priorities outlined by the science frontiers panels.
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The activities of these two sets of panels were supplemented by six informal i. The thematic orientation of the seven panels for the Earth science and applications from space decadal survey, differing significantly from those of the other three surveys, were organized around combinations of both scientific and operational themes—for example, human health and security; Earth science applications and societal benefits; and solid Earth hazards, natural resources, and dynamics.
Schematic timelines illustrating the high-level features of the study process employed by the four most recent decadal surveys sponsored by NASA SMD are illustrated in Figures 2. Activities common to most, if not all, of the most recent surveys include the following:. The public start of the decadal study process typically occurs with the first meeting of the survey committee. Thereafter, meetings of the panels and survey committee alternate.
Survey committees typically hold five or six full meetings plus numerous additional conference calls. Panels typically meet three times each plus additional conference calls, as necessary and complete their work prior to the third or fourth meeting of the survey committee. All four recent decadal surveys included a mechanism by which members of the relevant scientific communities could submit white papers discussing important scientific, technical, or programmatic issues.
The solicitation typically occurs soon after the first meeting of the survey committee.
Lessons Learned in Decadal Planning
The submission deadline is timed so that the white papers are available for consideration by the supporting panels soon after their first meetings. Most, if not all, survey committees delegate the drafting of key science questions to their supporting panels. The most explicit example of this occurred in the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, where the science frontiers panels existed specifically to undertake this task.
This is perhaps the most complex activity undertaken by any decadal survey and, also, the most idiosyncratic. All four recent decadal studies had a mission formulation phase, but no two surveys employed the same process.
The astronomy and astrophysics survey committee, for example, issued a request for information RFI to the scientific community for potential mission concepts. However, sufficient resources were directly and indirectly available to the planetary science survey to enable it to commission more than 20 additional mission studies at leading design centers. The solar and space physics community was even less well endowed with mission design activities prior to or in the context of its decadal survey.
The resources available to this survey activity were only sufficient to allow the study of a dozen mission concepts by a design team at the Aerospace Corporation. Mission formulation and design activities were not a major facet of the activities conducted in support of the decadal survey in Earth science and applications from space. Mission designers at several NASA centers did assist the survey committee to determine the likely costs of key components—e.
However, these activities nowhere near matched the scope of the studies conducted prior to or within the context of the three other recent decadal surveys. A key facet of three of the four most recent decadal studies was the inclusion of an independent assessment of the likely cost and technical risk associated with priority mission concepts outlined in the survey reports. An ebook is one of two file formats that are intended to be used with e-reader devices and apps such as Amazon Kindle or Apple iBooks.
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Proceedings: Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.
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The National Research Council NRC has been conducting decadal surveys in the Earth and space sciences since , and released the latest five surveys in the past 5 years, four of which were only completed in the past 3 years. Lessons Learned in Decadal Planning in Space Science is the summary of a workshop held in response to unforseen challenges that arose in the implementation of the recommendations of the decadal surveys.
This report takes a closer look at the decadal survey process and how to improve this essential tool for strategic planning in the Earth and space sciences. Workshop moderators, panelists, and participants lifted up the hood on the decadal survey process and scrutinized every element of the decadal surveys to determine what lessons can be gleaned from recent experiences and applied to the design and execution of future decadal surveys. The National Academies Press and the Transportation Research Board have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to offer a variety of options for reusing our content.
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